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MOWA ZALEŻNA





Mowa zależna służy głównie do relacjonowania wypowiedzi innych osób np: On powiedział, że...


Zdania oznajmujące:


Present Simple
He says: "I do it."
He said that he did it.

Present Continuous
I am doing it .
He said he was doing it .

Present Perfect Simple
I have done it .
He said he had done it .

Present Perfect Continuous
I have been doing it .
He said he had been doing it .

Past Simple
I did it .
He said he had done it .

Past Continuous
I was doing it .
He said he had been doing it .

Past Perfect Simple
I had done it .
He said he had done it .

Past Perfect Continuous
I had been doing it .
He said he had been doing it .

Future simple
I will do it .
He said he would do it .

Future Continous
I will be doing it .
He said he would be doing it .

Future Perfect Simple
I will have done it .
He said he would have done it .

Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been doing it .
He said he would have been doing it .


Łatwo zauważyć, że wymiana czasów następuje zawsze o jeden czas do tyłu co oznacza, że czasy teraźniejsze zamieniają się w przeszłe, a czasy przeszłe w zaprzeszłe. Czasy zaprzeszłe pozostają bez zmian gdyż nie mają już możliwożci cofnięcia.


Time expressions:

now - then
today - that day
yesterday - the day before
tomorrow - the next day
next e.g. Monday - the following Monday
last week - the previous week
two days ago - two days before
here - there
this - that
these - those


Zdania pytające:

Pytania ogólne w mowie zależnej poprzedzone są spójnikiem "if" lub "whether" i mają szyk zdania oznajmującego.
PRZYKŁADY:
Is he going with us?
I asked if he was going with us.
I wanted to know whether he was going with us.
I was curious if he was going with us.

"Do you get up early?" - she asked me.
She asked me if I got up early.

"Has she come back yet? - she asked me.
She asked me if she had come back yet.

Analogicznie we wszystkich innych czasach.

Pytania szczegółowe w mowie zależnej rozpoczynają się od słówek pytających (what, who, why itp.) i mają szyk zdania oznajmującego.
PRZYKŁADY:
What time do you get up every day?
I asked what time you got up every day.
I wanted to know what time you got up every day.

"Why did you behave like this last Monday?" - she asked me.
She asked me why I had behaved like this the pervious Monday.

"How much was this bike?" - she asked me.
She asked me how much that bike had been.


Zdania pytające:

Zdania rozkazujące w mowie zależnej są jedynym rodzajem zdań, w których nie stosuje się wymiany czasów. Ma tutaj zastosowanie konstrukcja bezokolicznika, za pomocą czasowników:
- tell sb to do sth
- ask sb to do sth
- order sb to do sth
- beg sb to do sth

PRZYKŁADY:
"Open the window!"
I asked you to open the window.

"Help me" - he said to her.
He told her to help him.

"Don't do it" - he said to me.
He said to me not to do it.


Zdania wykrzyknikowe:

Zdania wykrzyknikowe mają również szyk oznajmujący i następuje następstwo czasów.
PRZYKŁADY:
"What a lovely day it is today?" - he said.
He exclaimed what a lovely day it was that day
remarked
expressed the surprise
greeted

"What a nice picture I have got!"
I exclaimed what a nice picture I had got.
What excellent meals she cooks"
I exclaimed what excellent meals she cooked.


PRZYKŁADY:

"Let's have a drink" - she said.
She suggested having a drink.
She suggested that we should have a drink.

"Let's go to the cinema" - she said.
She suggested going to the cinema.
She suggested that we should go to the cinema.


Strona bierna w mowie zależnej:

"She knows many French songs" - she said.
She said that many French songs were known her.

"I will read this book next week" - he said.
He said that that book would be read by him the following week.

"She starts her work at seven" - he said.
He said that work is started at seven by her.